Article #145, June 2009
By Bill Cook
are a critical resource for many reasons. World history and current consumption
clearly illustrate the importance of forests to a nation's survival. I suspect
most of us take forests for granted and rarely spend much time wondering what
is happening to them today or how they might fare into the future.
I was recently reminded
how important economic use is to keeping forests as forests. While traveling
through the Alentejo region of southern Portugal, I saw that cork forests dominate
large parts of the landscape. These forests have long supplied much of the world's
For centuries, wine
bottlers have used cork stoppers. The cork allows the wine to breathe and does
not affect the flavor of the wine (except in rare cases). Over the past few
years, bottlers have begun to use plastic stoppers.
This, of course, threatens
the cork industry. So what?
Well, without an adequate
market, much of the cork forest would be converted to other uses. An entire
ecosystem would diminish considerably.
Without adequate wood product markets, forests are much more vulnerable to conversion to other uses.
I couple this pending
situation with an observation from last year while flying into Newark, New Jersey.
In the rolling mountains west of the New York megalopolis, thousands of forested
acres were parceled into small estates by the wealthy upper middle class. This
was once forest that provided timber, hunting, wildlife habitat, and many other
Now, this residentialized
forest still provides a measure of forest benefits, as it remains fairly forested.
However, what once was a rich resource of public benefits has been substantially
diminished. The American trend for sprawling development and urban splatter
comes at a cost. It is long-term land use conversion.
This concept was punctuated
last spring when Michigan hosted a Swedish energy and forestry team. While chatting
with one forester, he remarked if it was customary in the USA to convert productive
farm and forest land into housing. I remarked that, yes, it was common. In Sweden,
and throughout most of Europe, residential expansion occurs largely on land
less useful for food and forest.
Conversion of forests
to other uses has potential negative effects not reflected in the price of land.
One of the major causes of global climate change has been linked to loss of
Currently, most of
the world's deforestation is occurring in Brazil and Indonesia. The USA has
actually increased its area of forest over the decades, but that trend has slowed.
By 2050, the US forest may go from a net carbon sink to a net carbon emitter.
This will largely be due to land use changes and lack of management.
Research from the
UW-Madison Silvis Lab has tracked forest changes due to human development in
the Lake States with a particular focus on timber products. Much of the research
results are stunning. While land use change is far from complete deforestation,
the trends falsely appear as subtle and they are permanent. The actual effects
are dramatic and disturbing to those who value economic, environmental, and
socio-cultural benefits of forests.
Much of the broad
public benefit derived from large forest expanses has been exchanged with a
diminished condition that largely benefits only the owners of small parcels.
The rolling mountains west of New York City were a striking visual example for
me, moreso than the graphical presentation of research results.
Michigan, the Lake
States, and the United States have an abundance of forests today. We have some
of the most sustainable management anywhere in the world. However, there are
ongoing trends that threaten that abundance. And, management occurs only where
forests and markets exist.
The rampant historic
logging of the nation's forests did not constitute a land use change. The forests
returned, through management and with time, and in an abruptly different condition
in some cases, but they returned. Current development trends offer a far more
serious threat to our future.
There are storm clouds
on the horizon of our forest resource. A paradise once lost, will be very difficult
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Bill Cook is an MSU Extension forester providing educational programming for the entire Upper Peninsula. His office is located at the MSU Upper Peninsula Tree Improvement Center near Escanaba. The Center is the headquarters for three MSU Forestry properties in the U.P., with a combined area of about 8,000 acres. He can be reached at email@example.com or 906-786-1575.
by Bill Cook, Forester/Biologist, Michigan State University Extension, 6005
J Road, Escanaba, MI 49829
906-786-1575 (voice), 906-786-9370 (fax), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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